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Full text of "Report of the Medical missionary society in China. For the year 1845..."

REPORT 



GF THE 



MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY 



IN CHINA. 



FOR THE YEAR 1845. 



VICTORIA. 



PRINTED AT THE HONGKONG REGISTER PRESS. 



1845. 



ilEPOtti 



OF THE 



MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY 



IN CHINA. 



FOR THE YEAR 1845. 



CONTENTS 

Page. 

Minutes of the General Meeting, held on the 10th April, 1845,. . 3. 

Minutes of the General Meeting, held on the 25th September,.. . 5. 

General Report — Statement of late Proceedings 7. 

Report of the Hospital at Amoy, by Dr. Hepburn 13. 

Report of the Hospital at Shanghai, by Dr. Lockhart 18. 

Report of the Hospital at Hongkong, by Dr. IIobson, 28. 

Report of the Hospital at Ningpo, by Dr. MacGowan, 34. 

List of Officers, 37. 

Regulations and By-Laws of the Society, 38. 



VICTORIA. 

PRINTED AT THE HONGKONG REGISTER PRESS. 
1846. 




^E Ik 



MINUTES 

OF THE 

GENERAL MEETING, 

Held on the 19th April, 1845. 

A General Meeting of the Medical Missionary Society was held in 
the Hospital, Hongkong, on the afternoon of Saturday the 19th instant. 
Among those present we observed the Hon. F. W. A. Bruce, Alex- 
ander Matheson, Esq., Dr. Anderson, Dr. Bridgman, Dr. Hobson, 
Dr. Parker, Rev. S. It. Brown, T. W. L. McKean, Esq., Rev. V. 
Stanton, H. R. Hauker, Esq., Crawford Kerr, Esq., Donald 
Matheson, Esq., Angus Fletcher, Esq., J. F. Edger, Esq., Patrick 
Dudgeon, Esq., Captain D'Aguilar, C. B. Hillier, Esq., Brigadier 
Chesney, Dr. Trail, Rev.W. Gillespie, Dr. Kennedy, D^Etwell, 
Dr. Dill, Dr. O'Sullivan, Dr. Barton, Dr. Gilbert, A.Shortrede, 
Esq., Dr. Tucker, Rev. H. Brown, Rev. Messrs. Bonney and Smith, 
Messrs. Empson, Nicol, Cairns, and one or two others whose names 
we did not learn. 

The Hon. F. W. A. Bruce was unanimously called to the chair. Dr. 
Anderson having detailed shortly the proceedings of the Committee 
for the last two years, and explained the views that the Committee- 
had proposed as early as August last, for renewing the Society, so. 
many Members having left, and for providing for the systematic and 
efficient management of the affairs of the Society, which will be found 
expressed in the Third Resolution, and also the causes which led to 
the misunderstanding on the part of some Members of the Society, 
introduced the First Resolution, viz : — 

I. That this Meeting, deeply regretting that any misunderstanding 
should have taken place, threatening to destroy the unity of feeling- 
and action hitherto existing in the Medical Missionary Society and 
other benevolent Institutions in China, do earnestly desire that any 
differences of opinion which may have arisen in the management of its- 
affairs shall be adjusted. 

II. Proposed by the Rev. S. R. Brown, seconded by Dr. Hobson, 
and unanimously agreed to — That owing to the situation in which the 
foreign community have been placed since the year 1839, the affair* 
of the Society have of necessity fallen into some degree of neglect and 
confusion ; and the recent difference of opinion among the Members of 
the Committee has arisen from the want of the same amount of doc- 
umentary evidence in the case of all the Members, some possessing- 
more and some less, in proportion as they had access or not to the- 



[4] 

unpublished records of the Society ; and as the differences of opinion 
have their foundation in a mere mutual misunderstanding, this Meet- 
ing do therefore express their conviction, that all reasonable ground 
of division ; s removed, and their strong hope that an* future care may 
be taken to prevent the recurrence of misunderstanding, and to cement 
the friends of the Medical Missionary Society in perpetual harmony. 

III. Proposed b) r Dr. Bkidgman, seconded by the Rev. S. H. 
Brown and unanimously carried — That the original proposal of the 
Committee, for providing for the systematic and efficient management 
of the affi'i.-s of the Society, be approved of, as a proposition now laid 
before the Society for its consideration, to be decided upon at the next 
Annual General Meeting, on the last Thursday of September, when 
the election of office bearers will take place. 

The proposition of the Committee is — That a Committee be ap- 
pointed at Hongkong, for the purpose of carrying on the details of the 
general business of the Society, corresponding with the Medical Of- 
ficers and the foreign auxiliaries of the Society, preparing and publish- 
ing general reports, procuring supplies of Medicines, and rendering 
such assistance to the Medical Officers as the central position of Hong- 
kong would enable them to perform : — That the Medical Officers be 
ex-officio Vice-Presidents and Members of the Committee: — That a 
lical Committee be connected with the Medical Officers, at each of the 
different places where Institutions of the Society are established, to 
assist in collecting and disbursing the funds, and for considering any 
proposition that may require the approval of the General Meeting of 
the Society ; — That the number of Vice-Presidents be increased, in- 
cluding some of the residents at each of the different Ports open to 
foreigners ; — That the General Meetings of the Society shall not be 
held twice successively at one place. 

IV. It was proposed by Alexander Matheson, Esq., seconded 
by T. W. L. McKean, Esq., and unanimously carried — That the next 
General Meeting of the Society shall be held in Hongkong. 

V '. Proposed by Dr. Andejs-on, and unanimously approved of — 
That steps should he immediately taken for raising Subscriptions in 
aid of the funds of the Society, and the admission of Members. Sub- 
scriptions to be received at Hongkong by Dr. Hobson, in Canton by 
Dr. Parker, and at Macao by Dr. Anderson. 

A letter was read from the Hon. J. W. Hulme, expressing regret 
that he could not attend the Meeting, and enclosing an order for One 
Hundred Dollars, which entitles him to be considered a Member for 
life of the Medical Missionary Society. 

Dr. Andjerson moved a note of thanks to the Hon. F. W. A. Bruce, 
for his able and gentlemanly conduct as Chairman ; which motjon 
was carried by acclamation. — The Chairman in returning thanks ex- 
pressed his gratification at the prospect of harmony being renewed in 
an Institution of so benevolent a nature, and one which the Govern- 
ment of Hongkong would be most willing to countenance and assist. 

ALEXANDER ANDERSON, 
Acting Secretary. 



MINUTES 

OF THE 

GENERAL MEETING, 

H.ii.D on the 25th September, 1815. 

In accordance with the resolution adopted at the General Meeting 
on the 1 9th April, notice having been previously given in the local 
Papers, a General Meeting was held in the Hospital of the Society, 
Hongkong, on the 25th September. Present : — A. Mathesox, Esq., 

D. Matheson, Esq., Rev. Dr. Legge, Rev. S. R. Brown, Rev. Mr. 
Bonney, Rev. V. Stanton, Rev. Mr. Steedman, F. Dili., Esq., 
Gi i.bert Smith, Esq., and some others. Alex. Matheson, Esq., 
having been unanimously called to the chair, the Report was read by 
the Rev. J. Legge, Corresponding Secretary, the Acting Secretary, A. 
Anderson, Esq., having found it impossible to leave Macao, so as to 
be present at the Meeting. 

The following Resolutions were then proposed and unanimously 
adopted : — 

I. That the Report just read be approved and accepted. 

II. That the Meeting disavows the proceedings of Dr. Parker 
and other Gentlemen in Canton, adverted to in the Report which has 
just been received, and protests against any resolutions passed by 
them at Meetings in Canton being considered as acts of the Medical 
Missionary Society in China. 

III. That the following Gentlemen be appointed Office-bearers 
for the ensuiag year : — President, T. R. Colledge, Esq., F. R. S. E.; 
Vice-Presidents, Alexander Anderson, Esq., G. T. Lay, Esq., Rev. 

E. C Bridgman, D. D., W. Leslie, Esq., D. Mathbson, Esq., Hon. 
Ma'or-General D'Aguilar, C. B., Hon. J. W. Hulme, Esq., Rev. 
V Stanton, T. W. L. McKean, Esq., H. R. Harker, Esq., A. J. 
Fm.'SON, Esq., A. G. Dallas, Esq., F. T. Bush, Esq., R, Thou. Esq., 
and ejr-officio, the Medical officers of the Society ; Recording Secre- 
taries, P. Young, Esq., and F. Dill, Esq.; Corresponding Secretary, 
Rev. Dr. Legge; Treasurer, P. Dudgeon, Esq.; Auditor of Accounts, 
G. Smith, Esq. 

IV. With reference to the proposals for a General Committee in 
Hongkong, and for local Committees at the several stations occupied 
by the Society, — That the Office-bearers resident in Hongkong form 
a General Committee of Management, five to constitute a quorum ; 
and that the local Committees be formed in the same way — three to 
constitute a quorum. 



[6] 

V. With reference to the proposal that no General Meeting be 
held twice successively in the same place, — That such proposal is in- 
expedient, and that General or Annual Meetings be called in accord- 
ance with the hitherto existing regulation regarding them. 

VI. That the proposal of Dr. Devan, and the plan submitted by 
l>r. Hobson, for the management of the Hospital during his absence, 
be submitted — the former to the General Committee, and the latter 
to the local Committee of Hongkong. 

\"n. That, as no accounts have been received from the late Acting 
Treasurer, the Treasurer and Secretaries be appointed a Committee to 
adjust accounts with him. 

VIII. That the Society are deeply sensible of the disinterested 
and important services rendered during a long course of years by Dr. 
Anderson, and that the Secretary be instructed to convey to him 
the feelings of the Society on the subject. — And now that he is about 
to take his departure from this part of the world, that they unanimously 
tender him their best wishes for his future prosperity and happiness. 

IX. That the local Committee be instructed to apply to the Go- 
vernor for the Lease of the Hill on which the Hospital is situated. 

X. That the proceedings of the Meeting be published in the local 
Newspapers. 

Thanks having been unanimously tendered, to the Chairman, the 
Meeting dismissed. 

JAMES LEGGE, 

Secretary to the Meeting in lieu of A. Anderson, Esq 



GENERAL REPORT; 

STATEMENT OF LATE PROCEEDINGS. 

In presenting a Report of the proceedings of the Medical Missionary 
Society since the Inst Meeting, the Committee deeply regret that so 
much of it must he occupied with a statement of the differences, that 
have occurred in regard to its management. After the statement that 
was made at the Meeting held in Hongkong in April, the good feel- 
ing that was exhihited, and the resolutions that were then agreed to, 
showing the unfounded nature of the misunderstanding that led to 
the agitation in Canton, and the formation of a separate party there, 
it was hoped that this would have been unnecessary, and that the un- 
fortunate disputes would have been adjusted. But the party that has 
been formed there by Dr. Parker, continuing to act as a separate 
body claiming to be the Medical Missionary Society in China, and 
having interfered with the funds of the Society, makes it necessary 
that some statement of the proceedings that led to this separation 
should be laid before the Society. 

Before doing so, the Committee, while deploring the unsatisfactory 
state of the general affairs of the Society, and the disputes that have 
destroyed the harmony that had previously existed, have much sa- 
tisfaction in stating, that the labors of the Medical officers have been 
uninterrupted, and have given great encouragement to them to perse- 
vere in the good work in which they are engaged, and to the Society to 
■continue their support to the institutions that have been formed under 
its auspices. 

The Committee have the pleasure to lay before the Society the 
reports of Drs. Hepburn and Gumming at Amoy for 1844, that of 
Dr. Lockhart for 1845, which shows a steadily increasing desire on 
The part of the Chinese in the neighbourhood of Shanghai, to avail 
themselves of the benefits afforded by the labors of the Medical Mis- 
sionary, and the large number of upwards of 10,000 in fourteen months, 
who had sought relief at the institution under Dr. Lock hart's manage- 
ment ; and that of Dr. Hobson at Hongkong, which will be after- 
wards alluded to, when Dr. Hobson's letter, announcing the necessity 
of his departure to England for a time, is laid before the Societv, and 
the management of the institution until his return taken into consid- 
eration. 

In reverting to the general affairs of the Society, it will be necessary 
to go back to 1844, when from the small number of Members then 
in China, and the difficulty of bringing enough of them together, from 
the different places in which they were scattered, to hold a general 
Meeting, the Committee at a Meeting in Hongkong in June of that 



[S] 

year, took upon themselves to publish a report of the proceedings of 
the Society up to that time, with those of such of the Medical officers 
as had been forwarded. 

It was then resolved that steps should be taken for the admission 
of a larger number of Members, and that a general Meeting shou d be 
held as soon as practicable ; and that previous to convening a general 
Meeting, some plan should be agreed upon for the more efficient man- 
agement of the affairs of the Society, rendered necessary from the al- 
tered position of things in China, and to meet the wants of the large 
number of institutions, then being formed at various places on the 
Coast of China, in connection with the Society. 

The plan which was laid before the Meeting held in Hongkong on 
the 19th April of this year, in the form of a proposition for the cohm- 
deratioix and subsequent decision of the Society, viz : — That a Com- 
mittee be appointed at Hongkong for the purpose of carrying on the 
details of the general business of the Society, corresponding with the 
Medical officers, and the foreign auxiliaries of the Society, preparing 
and publishing general reports, procuring supplies of Medicines, and 
rendering such assistance to the Medical officers, as the central posi- 
tion of Hongkong would enable them to perform ; that the Medical 
officers be ex-offi.cia Vice-Presidents and Members of the Committee ; 
that a local Committee be connected with the Medical officers, ;.t 
each of the different places where institutions of the Society are estab- 
lished, to assist in the collecting and dispensing of funds, and for 
considering any proposition that may require the approval of a general 
Meeting of the Society ; that the number of Vice-Presidents be in- 
creased, including some of the residents at each of the different Ports 
open to foreigners ; that the general Meetings of the Society should not 
be held twice successively at one place, — was agreed upon by all the 
Members of the Committee, except Dr. Parker, Senior Vice-President, 
vi ho offered strenuous opposition to every measure propounded. Upon 
what grounds Dr. Parkkr opposed these terms has never been clearly 
stated, but the Committee with the desire of preserving unanimity, and 
of having him who had been one of the original founders of the Society, 
and who held so prominent a position in it, to act with them, delay- 
ed carrying out their views for some time, in the hope that some plan 
might be devised that would please the Doctor — consistent with what 
they thought advisable for the general interests of the Society. 

In this however the Committee were unsuccessful — the Doctor 
treated every remonstrance or proposition made by different Members 
of the Committee with contempt ; and seeing that the time should be 
lost for renewing the interest of the community in the Society, unless 
Some steps were taken in January of this year, a requisition, accord- 
ing to the constitution of the Society, signed by five Members of the 
Society, (all Members of the Committee,) and approved by the rest 
of the Committee, was forwarded to Dr. Parker, calling upon him, a« 
Senior Vice-President, to convene a Meeting, to be held in Hong- 
kong on an early day. 

In replying to the requisition to convene a general Meeting of the 



Society to be held in Hongkong,* Dr. Parker objected to it as the 
place of Meeting, and proposed that it should be held in Canton — at 
the same time forwarding the opinions of some of the Gentlemen re- 
siding in Canton, in favor of the Meeting being held there. Of these 
Gentlemen whom Dr. Parker induced to join him in his opposition 
to the measures of the Committee, and who signed the objections to 
the Meeting being held in Hongkong, only one had any legal right 
to interfere in the affairs of the Society, or was in fact a Member of 
the Society ; and through mistake we presume, he had signed the ob- 
jection.'- alluded to, not with his own name, but with that of the Mer- 
cantile firm of which he is a Member, no firm in China having ever 
subscribed to the Medical Missionary Society. Another Gentleman 
had been an annual subscriber, but not having continued his subscrip- 
tion since 1841, his claim to be considered a Member of the Society 
ceased at the end of that year. Of the others, none had ever subscribed 
to this Society except three, and they only for one year at the com- 
mencement of the Society, and were Members of the Society for the 
year only 1838 to 1839. 

Deeming however the opinions of so respectable a body of the 
Community worthy of consideration, the Committee, though con- 
stituting a majority of the then existing Members of the Society in 
China, reconsidered their views, with the objections of the Gentlemen 
in Canton. No sufficient grounds however were seen for any altera- 
tion in their plans, and the resolution of the 14th February, which it 
was afterwards deemed advisable to publish, was passed and approved 
of by all the Members of the Committee except Dr. Parker. 

The Doctor was earnestly urged not to pursue his course of op- 
position ; and it was pointed out to him that by going out of the 
Society for support in his views, he was virtually forming a separate 
Society ; and that such a course would necessary lead to a disruption 
of the Society, and the destruction of the unanimity and harmony that 
had hitherto existed in the different Charitable and Missionary So- 
cieties in China, supported by the Members of the Community both 
English and American, and in the labors of the Missionaries from both 
countries. The remonstrances of the Committee however were dis- 
regarded, and Dr. Parker proceeded to call upon his own authority a 
Meeting to be held in Canton, in opposition to the requisition of the 
Committee, an actual majority of the whole Members of the Society in 
China — and a large one to those, supporting the doctor in his views, 
who could bring forward the most distant claim to be considered 
Members. 

This singular assumptive of prerogative was virtually forming a 
separate Society, and vitiates all claim of the party attaching them- 
selves to him to be considered the Medical Missionary Society in China, 
and to all right to interfere with its funds or in its management. 

* The constitution of the Society does not confine the Meetings to Canton, 
and the practice from the first has been to hold them where most convenient to 
Members. More than double the number of Meetings, both of the Society 
and of the Committee, hfti e been held in Macao, to those in Canton. 



[10] 

The proceedings up to the General Meeting held in Hongkong in 
the 19th of April, are known to all the Members of the Society. The 
Committee published three resolutions, declaring the illegality of the 
Meetings which were held in Canton, and calling the General Meeting 
of the 19th April, in Hongkong, in accordance with the requisition 
forwarded to Dr. Parker in January, and with the views of the ma- 
jority of the then existing Members of the Society in China. 

The proceedings of the General Meeting of the Society in Hong- 
kong in April were so conciliatory, and so far from every party or na- 
tional feeling, that it was confidently hoped that Dr. Parker, and those 
who had attached themselves to him as a separate party, would take 
advantage of the opportunity to promote a cordial reunion. 

This hope however has been disappointed. At a Meeting held by 
them in Canton on the 2 1 st May, they proceeded to draw from the funds 
of the Society in the hands of the Treasurer the sum of ^o,28G.32, 
which had been subscribed in America to form a permanent fund for 
the benefit of the Society — brought out by Dr. Parker, and paid in 
as such to the Treasurer after his return in 1842, from England and 
America — to which countries he had proceeded in 1840, as the au- 
thorised Agent of the Society, to advocate the cause of Medical Mis- 
sions, and to raise funds for the support of the Society in China. 

The party in Canton having continued to act as an independent 
body, and having interfered with the funds of the Society, seems to have 
destroyed all hope of reunion — and the Committee, believing that a 
quiet separation would meet the views of this Society, addressed the 
following letter to Dr. Pakker, and the gentlemen appointed at a 
Meeting of gentlemen in Canton to confer and correspond with the 
Members of the Society in Macao and Hongkong : — 

Macao, 25th August, 1845. 

To the Rev. P. Parker, M. D., and the Gentlemen appointed by a 
Meeting held in Canton, on the 21st May, to confer and correspond 
with the Members of the Medical Missionary Society in Macao 
and Hon<rkon°\ 

Q to 

Gentlemen, — I am directed by the Committee of the Medical Mis- 
sionary Society to state to you, that from the feelings which were 
excited during the late discussions in regard to the management of its 
affairs, they believe a division of the Society inevitable, more partic- 
ularly since the party in Canton, continuing to act as an independent 
body, and interfering with the funds of the Society, after the Meeting 
of the Society in Hongkong on the 19th April showed how uncalled 
for was the agitation in Canton, and how unfounded the misun- 
derstanding that led to the formation of the party there, seems to have 
thrown an insuperable barrier in the way of the cordial union they 
had anticipated. 

The object of the Society being to assist Medical Gentlemen sent 
out to this country as Missionaries, who will use their profession as a 
means to forward their labors in spreading a knowledge of the truths 
of Christianity, and to extend the blessings of rational Medicine and 



[11] 

Surgery among the Chinese, by providing the means of carrying on 
their Medical work ; the Committee feel that by such a division, and 
the formation of a separate Society in connection with the party in 
Canton, the object for which the Medical Missionary Society in China 
was first instituted will not suffer ; and I am directed to intimate, 
that in order to bring about peaceably and quietly what they believe 
inevitable — to prevent the injury to the cause of Medical Mission?, 
and of Missions in general, that might be produced by keeping up 
farther agitation and disputes in regard to the management of this 
Society, and to further the interests of the numerous Institutions now 
open in China for affording relief to the sick, and facilities for preach- 
ing the Gospel of Christ — they are willing to agree to an arrange- 
ment with you in behalf of the party in Canton, that will leave part 
of the funds at its disposal, in support of such of the Institutions as 
may become attached to it — the terms of the arrangement to be sub- 
ject to the approval of the General Meeting of the Society, to be held 
in Hongkong in September. 

And I am farther directed to intimate, that the Committee propose 
the following terms of division, and will be prepared, if you agree to 
them on the part of the party in Canton, to lay them before the General 
Meeting of the Society, to be held in Hongkong in September, with 
full confidence that they will be approved of — The Hospital, Buildings, 
&c, in Hongkong which cost the Society ,^5,000 to remain the pro- 
perty of the Society ; — The <^5, 286. 32, drawn from the American 
funds of the Society in the hands of the Treasurers by the party in 
Canton, to remain at its disposal ; and the remainder of the money, 
now in the hands of the Treasurers, to be divided equally, the one 
half to be at the disposal of the party in Canton, and the other half 
to be paid over to the Treasurer that may be appointed at the Annual 
General Meeting of the Medical Missionary Society in China, to be 
held in Hongkong, on the last Thursday, in September. 
I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, 

ALEXANDER ANDERSON. 
Acting Secretary. 
Approved, — Lancelot Dent, 

Wm. Leslie, 

Alex. Matheson, 

James Legge, 

E. C. Bridgman. 

To Alexander Anderson, Esq., and other Members of the Medical 
Missionary Society in China, residing at Macao and Hongkong. 

Gentlemen, — I am directed by the Committee appointed by the 
Medical Missionary Society in China, at a Meeting held at Canton on 
the 21st of May, to confer and correspond with the Members of the 
Society at Macao and Hongkong, to acknowledge the receipt of your 
communication of the 25th of August. 

From this communication it appears to be your pleasure to secede 
from the Medical Missionary Society in China. Since this is the de- 



[12] 

cision to which you have come, it affords pleasure to learn that you 
wish to do it amicably, and have proposed a mode of dividing the pro- 
perty and funds of the Society. To that mode however we cannot 
agree, and beg to submit that the just and equitable division of the 
property and funds of the Society be referred to a Committee, consist- 
ing of the English and American Consuls, Francis C. Macgregor 
and P. S. Forbes, Esqrs., who shall be authorized to call in a third 
person should they not be able to agree themselves. 

The Members of the Medical Missionary Society in Canton, desire 
nothing but what is honorable and just in the premises, and from the 
well-known character, public and private, of these gentlemen, who are 
entirely disconnected with the Society, as well as from the resolution 
passed on a former occasion contemplating this emergency, the Com- 
mittee are confident that the Members of the Society in Canton will 
abide by the decision of the above named gentlemen. 

As the Annual Meeting of the Society in hear at hand, it is partic- 
ularly desired you will early signify your pleasure respecting this 
reference for the division of the proj erty and funds of the Medical 
Missionary Society in China. 

In behalf of the Committee aforesaid. 

I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, 

PETER PARKER. 

The Committee having brought this brief statement of the very un- 
satisfactory proceedings in regard to the general affairs of the Society 
up to the present time, beg to resign their appointments as Office- 
bearers of the Society. 

Before closing their statement they would enumerate what has been 
forwarded to them to lay before the Society. 

Report of the Hospital at Amoy from Drs. Hepburn and Cumming 
for part of 1844, with accounts of the same. 

Report of the Hospital at Shanghai from Dr. Lockhart for fourteen 
months ending 30th June 1845, with accounts of the same. 

Report of the Hospital at Hongkong. 

Request from Dr. Devan, Missionary from the American Baptist 
Society, to receive the patronage of the Society in establishing Dis- 
pensaries in Canton. 

Letter from Dr. Hobson, announcing his departure to England, and 
proposing a plan for the management of the Hospital at Hongkong, 
in his absence. 



REPORT 

OF THE 

DISPENSARY. AT AMOY, 

From 1st of February, 1844, to 1st of July, 1845. 

By J. C. HEPBURN, M. D. 

Medical labours amongst the people of this place were first commenc- 
ed by Dr. \V. H. Cumming, about the middle of June 1842, not quite 
a year after the taking of Amoy. He opened a Dispensary on Ko- 
longsu in the house of Rev. D. Abeel, where it was continued about 
a year and a half, until the last of January, 1844. It was not long 
after its establishment before it became pretty well known, and peo- 
ple from most of the neighbouring cities and villages came to it for 
relief from their maladies. A large number of patients was accord- 
ingly prescribed for. The Gospel was also preached to them by Mr. 
Abeel, and religious books distributed.* On several accounts Ko- 
loagsu was not considered to be a suitable place for the Dispensary, 
as well as the other Missionary operations, principally because it was 
too much out of the way, and occasionally difficult of access. Amoy 
was a much more desirable place. A locution there was accordingly 
sought for, but, from the timorous spirit of the Chinese, and their un- 
willingness to rent, a suitable house was not obtained until the be- 
ginning of this year. Having made the necessary alterations and 
repairs, we removed our Medicines, &c, over the latter part of January. 
Since that time the number of persons who have applied for relief has 
been much greater than before, and the Dispensary in every way more 
useful. The religious services have also been better attended. Besides 
daily conversation with the people, we have had regular service oa 
Sabbath morning, which has been kept up with but few interruptions. 
At this Meeting there is generally an attendance of from 60 to 100 
persons, most of them patients. We have always aimed to make the 
Dispensing of Medicines to the sick go hand in hand with religious 
instructions, which we consider to be the great object of our labours. 
Our patients are generally persons of the lower classes of Society, 
consisting of petty tradesmen, farmers, mechanics, coolies, and boat- 
men. Few of the middle or upper classes of Society have applied to 
us for Medical aid ; this appears to be more especially the case with 

* In November, 1844, Dr. Cumming was joined in his Medical labours by 
Dr. HErBLRN. 



[14] 

the citizens of Amoy. Well dressed strangers from a distance, attract- 
ed perhaps by curiosity, not unfrequently visit us. 

In relation to the following list of cases it may be well to state, 
that it comprises only those which were actually prescribed for. Those 
which we considered incurable, or which could not be relieved without 
better attendance than the circumstances admitted of, we invariably 
rejected, as well also as many of those who lived at a distance, and 
who could not promise a regular attendance. But notwithstanding 
the care to admit those only who promised to attend regular!}', we 
were often deceived, so that a large proportion of the cases recorded 
came but once, many left when they were better, or well enough to 
return to their avocations, antl but few had the patience to attend 
until they were well. Out of the whole number of cases recorded, we 
are doubtless within bounds when we say, that there were not 150 
cured, though a large majority of them were more or less relieved. 

The cases recorded below were also with but few exceptions chronic, 
their duration being reckoned by months and years, and consequently 
required a long protracted treatment, which few had the patience to 
go through with. 

Our Hospital patients have been but few. They were those princi- 
pally who had undergone a Surgical operation, and who required our 
more particular care and attention. For their accomodation we have 
rented a separate building near the Dispensary. The rule which we 
have adopted is, that the room and the cost be supplied by us, while 
the patients find their own attendance and food. This they willingly 
comply with, and in only a few instances have we been under the 
necessity of making any exception to it, which was in cases of deep 
poverty, or where they had no friends to assist them. 



Conjunctivitis, . . . 147 
Palpebral Conjunctivitis, . 86 
Corneitis, .... 101 
Blepharotis, 68 
Opacity of Cornea, . . 38 
Opacity of Cornea with Granula- 
tion of Lids, ... 9 
Iritis, . . . . . ip 
Trichiasis, . . . .15 
Cataract, .... 5 
Synechia Anterior, ... 3 
Pterygium, .... 26 
Kntropium, .... 5 
Amaurosis, .... 4 
Ulcer of Cornea, ... 7 
Vascular Cornea, . . 3 
Fistula Lachrymalis, . . 1 
Granular Conjunctivitis, . 7 
Granulations over Cornea, . 1 
Gonorrhoea! Opthalmia, . 1 
Internal Opthalmia with Softening, 1 



Melanosis, .... 1 

Paralysis of Upper Lid, . . 2 

Miscellaneous affections of Eye, 2 1 



Total, 



Otorrheea, 
Otitis, . 



Angina Pectoris,. 



Aphonia, . . . . 

Cough, (generally Bronchial,) 
Asthma,. . 
Hoemoptisis, 
Bronchitis, . 

Total, 



571 



5 
175 

60 
1 

3 
244 



[15] 



Gastralgia Simple, 
Gastralgia with Pyrosis, , 
Pyrosis Simple, . 
Indigestion, . . 
Diarrhoea, . . 
Dysentery, . . 
Ascites, . . , . 
Jaundice, . . 

Total, 



100 

147 

38 

68 

17 

2 

12 

9 

393 



Phymosis Congenital, . . 1 

Syphilis Primary, . . .12 
Syphilis Secondary and Tertiary, 77 
Blenorrhagia, . . . .14 
Orchitis, .... 5 

Varicocele, 1 

Hydrocele, .... 5 

Leuchorrhcea, ... 2 

Miscellaneous affections of 

Genital Organs, . . 3 



Total, 



120 



Lichen, 

Erysipelas, 

Prurigo, 

Scabies, . 

Eczema, 

Herpes Zoster, 

Herpes Phlyctenodes, 

Herpes, . 

Ecthyma, . 

Psoriasis, 

Impetigo Granulata, 

Leprosy, 

Miscellaneous affections of Skin, 

Total, 



3 
3 
3 
112 
11 
1 
1 



Rheumatism, 
Bruises, 



Intermittent Fever, 



Gun shot Wound, . . , 

Abscess Phlegmonous, 

Abscess Scrofulous, . 

Ulcers, 

Anasarca, 

Anthrax, . . . 

H oemorrhoids, 

Polypus of Nose, 

Meliceris, . . . 

Lipoma of Back, , 

Phlegmon, . . . 

Burn, . . . 

Fistula in Ano, . . 

Bubo, 

Dislocation of Lower Jaw, 

Sciatica, 

Hip-joint Disease, . 

Onychia, . 



Miscellaneous Medical Cases, 
Miscellaneous Surgical Cases, 



67 
40 

16 

1 
26 
4 
48 
1 
1 
4 
2 
3 
1 
6 
3 
1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
1 

67 
39 



Enlarged Mamma in a Boy of 
18 years old, 

Paronychia, .... 
Gangrene of Finger from Con- 
tusion, .... 
Ganglion 

Total 



ie 

175 

1 

6 

1 
3 

11 



Affections of the Eye, . .571 
Affections of Organs of Respira- 
tion, .... 244 
Affections of Organs of Diges- 
tion, . . . .393 
Affections of Organs of Genera- 
tion, . . . . 120 
Affections of Skin, . . .175 
Miscellaneous, . . . 359 



Total, 



Surgical Operations 
Pterygium, 

Entropium, . . 

Trichiasis, . . , 
Hydrocele radically, . 
Cataract, . . . 

Polypus of Nose, 
Meliceris, . . . 
Lipoma of Back, 
Circumcision, . . 

Amputation of Finger, 



1,S62 



18 

3 

11 

4 

S 
1 
2 
1 
1 
1 



[16] 

It cannot be expected that in such an institution as this, where 
there is so much ignorance amongst the patients, and so much irregu- 
larity in their attendance, that any valuable therapeutical or patholo- 
gical observations should be made. Nor is our record of cases to 
be relied on as furnishing accurate information on the statistics of 
disease in this city. None but the most general conclusions can be 
drawn from it, and these only in reference to that class of the people, 
amongst whom our labours were principally confined. 

The affections of the Eye, according to our observations, are much 
the most numerous, comprising nearly one-third of the whole number 
of cases treated by us. Their frequency is, however, satisfactorily 
accounted for, by the fact that it is principally as an Opthalmic insti- 
tution that our Dispensary has acquired a reputation ; that our patients 
are mostly from that class of persons who are most liable, from their 
manner .of life, to attacks of Opthalmia; that when once the disease is 
contracted, it never has the benefit of judicious Medical treatment, 
and is seldom entirely cured ; it consequently continues in a Chronic 
state, or if it gets better is continually liable to recur from slight 
causes. This indeed is the history of a large majority of our patients. 
The remedial agents upon which we most rely in the treatment of 
Chronic Conjunctivitis, Blepharotis, Opacity and Vascularity of Cornea, 
are Nitrate of Silver and Sulphate of Copper. With the latter par- 
ticularly we have been much gratified. We use it in the form of 
Ointment, 16 grs. of Sulph. Cop. to an ounce of lard, diluted more or 
less to suit the case. 

About one in seven of our cases have been affections of the organs 
of Respiration, most of them Coughs, resulting from slight Bronchial 
irritation ; these have generally been cured or much benefited by the 
use of Tartar emetic or Ipecacuanha. Asthma is a common complaint. 
Several of our cases have been young Boys, of 12 or 15 years old. 
To what extent consumption exists amongst the people here, we do 
not know. We have seen a number of cases. We conclude however 
that it is by no means so frequent as in England and America. 

Derangements of the Digestive Organs are the most frequent, next to 
those of the Eye. That form of it, generally known by the name of 
Dyspepsia, is much the most common. We have analysed and ar- 
ranged it under the head of its most prominent symptoms. Why it 
should be so common amongst the Chinese is perhaps owing, princi- 
pally, to their living so much on salted provisions, especially pickled 
vegetables and fish, as well as irregularity in eating, opium smoking, 
and immoderate use of tea. Our method of treating these affections 
is simple, and in the large majority of cases effectual ; indeed we seldom 
find our treatment entirely to fail. It consists in the use of Black 
Pepper 10 parts, Rhubarb 11 parts, 3 ounces to be made into 400 
pills, two pills to be taken about an hour before each meal, the dose to 
be gradually increased. 

Affections of Genital Organs ; of these Syphilis composes about -^ 
of the number. It almost always presents itself to us in the secondary 
and tertiary state, in the forms of Cutaneous eruptions, and Ulcera- 



[17] 

lions, many of them very extensive and disgusting. We have seen 
but few cases in which the throat has been affected. Most of these 
cases have been improved and some cured by the mercurial treatment. 
We have punctured a great many cases of Hydrocele, of which we have 
kept no account. Those recorded are cases which we treated for 
radical cure, of which — were successful, one was cured by the superven- 
tion of inflammation and suppuration oh puncture merely. 

Affections of the Skin are common, more so than an examination 
of our table would lead one to suppose, as it is only those cases which 
we have some prospect of relieving that we have admitted ; many cases 
we have, on this account, been compelled to reject. 

The case of Dislocation of Lower Jaw is one of interest, from the 
length of time in which the bone had been displaced. The patient 
was about 30 years of age, and stated positively that it had been 
dislocated 24 days, which we were at first disposed to doubt* but had 
no reason to disbelieve. It was reduced in about 15 minutes, with a 
lever of wood and a cork Fulcrum ; both sides were dislocated. The 
patient never came back after the reduction, much to our regret. 



REPORT 

OF THE 

MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY'S, 

HOSPITAL AT SHANGHAI. 

* From 1st of May, 1844, to 30th of June, 1845. 

By W. LOCKHART, M. R. C. S. 

In the last Report some remaiks were made respecting the position 
of Shanghai, and an opinion was expressed as to the healthiness of 
its situation and climate; further experience has strengthened this 
opinion, and there do not appear to be any Epidemic forms of disease 
prevalent among the people, who however suffer much from the effects 
of the sudden changes of climate, which take place during the spring 
and autumn months, as is shown in some degree, from the large number 
of cases of disease of the Lungs, and Rheumatism. 

It is surprising that more disease does not exist in such a city as 
this, during the great heat of the summer months, densly populated as 
it is, the people being crowded together in narrow streets, and several 
families frequently living together in one house ; and from there being 
no police regulations respecting cleansing the city, nor any public 
scavengers ; the sewerage is also of the most imperfect kind, the drains 
being merely a species of continuous cess-pool, where filth of all kinds 
i; allowed to accumulate and pollute the air ; on the other hand manure 
is much wanted for the fields, and as it bears a high market value, 
is much sought after and carried away into the country j great num- 
bers of men and boats are constantly employed in this exportation, 
and thus large quantities of filth are removed, that would otherwise 
no doubt produce detriment to the health of the inhabitants ; in truth 
the price of every kind of ordure is the means of safety to the whole 
community. The nasal organs of the Chinese are not so sensitive as 
those of Europeans, and they care little for the most offensive odours 
in their streets and houses, while the foreigner feels almost prostrat- 
ed, by the stenches of various descriptions which assail him on all 
sides in any of these cities, the natives appear rather to enjoy " the 
spicy odours " than otherwise. 

In spite however of all the circumstances which usually prove in- 
jurious to health, the inhabitants of this city and district appear to 
enjoy a good share of health ; and though sallow in complexion, they 
are strong and attain in many instances a good old age. It is only by 



[19] 

a much longer residence, that it will be ascertained whether there 
are any periodic visits of Cholera or other severe diseases, aft'ecting 
the whole community. An accurate Register of the Thermometer has 
been kept for the last twelve months and it may be generally interest- 
ing to show the results : — 



1844 — June 

The latter half of 
the month only re- 
gistered. 

July 



August 
September 
October 
November 
December 
IS45 — January 
February 
March 
April 
May 
June 



General average for the day 
Greatest heat by day. 
Lowest heat by day. 



General average for the 
Greatest heat by day. 
Lowest heat by day. 
General average for the 
Greatest heat by day. 
Lowest heat by day. 
Ge&eral average for the 
Greatest heat by day. 
Lowest heat by day. 
General average for the 
Greatest heat by day. 
Lowest heat by day. 
General average for the 
Greatest heat by day. 
Lowest heat by day. 
General average for the 
Greatest heat by day. 
I^owest heat by day. 
General average for the 
Greatest heat by day. 
Lowest heat by day. 
General average for the 
Greatest heat by day. 
Lowest heat by da)'. 
General average for the 
Greatest heat by day. 
Lowest heat by day. 
General average for the 
Greatest heat by day. 
Lowest heat by day. 
General average for the 
Greatest heat by day. 
Lowest heat by day. 
General average for the 
Greatest heat by day. 
Lowest heat by day. 



day. 



day 



day. 



day. 



day 



day 



day 



day. 



day 



day. 



day. 



day 



77 


For the Night. 1 


66 


88 


Do. 


71 


72 


Do. 


05 


93 


Do. 


75 


Or, 


Do. 


82 


78 


Do. 


71 


80 


Do. 


77 


97 


Do. 


81 


85 


Do. _ 


75 


79 


Do. 


67 


91 


Do. 


77 


6S 


Do. 


63 


74 


Do. 


60 


85 


Do. 


67 


59 


Do. 


41 


65 


Do. 


53 


73 


Do. 


60 


55 


Do. 


40 


49 


Do. 


36 


64 


Do. 


49 


35 


Do. 


26 


4.1 


Do. 


36 


(1(1 


Do. 


45 


34 


Do. 


24 


45 


Do. 


37 


62 


Do. 


47 


36 


Do. 


30 


53 


Do. 


43 


80 


Do. 


64 


41 


Do. 


32 


04 


Do. 


51 


75 


Do. 


65 


47 


Do. 


41 


71 


Do. 


60 


87 


Do. 


68 


59 


Do. 


51 


76 


Do. 


68 


90 


Do. 


77 


Gl 


Do. 


53 



The register of cases shows the number of patients to be 10,978 
during fourteen months ; the diseases that passed under observation, 
are of much the same character as in the last report, and it is some- 
what remarkable that Intermittent fever should appear in so small a 
proportion to other affections in this district of the country ; and 
several cf the cases mentioned came from a single village, about four 



[ 20 J 

miles from Shanghai, called Lung-hwa, where the Pagoda is situated. 
Many cases of Fever, Dysentery, and Elephantiasis, have come from 
that place, most probably on account of its low site; the banks of the 
river are at this place very marshy, and there is much water around 
the village. 

In July last a juggler was exhibiting his tricks before a crowd, and 
in the course of his operations had to perform a needle trick as follows, 
he first pretended to swallow twenty needles singly, then to swallow 
a piece of string, to which the needles were to become attached (or 
threaded,) and drawn .out by a hooked piece of wire. However on 
passing down his hook, the needles had slipped too low, and both 
hook and needles became fixed in the throat ; after repeated efforts he 
extracted 8 or 10 of the needles, and was- then brought to me; on 
passing the finger into the throat, the needles were distinctly felt, the 
hook was firmly fixed at the back of the Pharynx, but was finally dis- 
engageoPand drawn out, and with some difficulty four more needles 
were removed with a portion of string ; the rest of the needles could 
not by any possibility he reached, either by the finger or by forceps, 
and: the worst circumstance in the case was, the needles were all 
attached to the piece of string, and they themselves penetrated the 
esophagus in different directions. The patient suffered much from 
Dyspnoea, with great agony from a sense of- suffocation in the throat ; 
an Emetic was given with a slight hope that some of the needles 
might be loosened by the- vomiting, bnt only one came away ; a pro- 
bang was passed during the evening without difficulty or pain, but 
also without any benefit; — Leeches were plentifully applied with 
considerable relief for a time; active purging also was used, and hot 
fomentations applied to the neck ; but great tumefaction., internally of 
the fauces and externally of the whole neck, took place, and advanced 
rapidiy till suffocation ensued five days after the accident. The man's 
friend-- expressed- their thanks for what had been done for him, and 
i nmediately removed the body — the patient was a poor feeble fellow, 
apparently a victim of long continued dissipation and vicious habits ; 
the state of his health, joined with the great uncertainty of any bene- 
ficial result, was the reason that no operation was attempted or even 
proposed. 

The case of enormous scrotal tumour mentioned- in the list occurred 
in a man 45 years of age, by trade a weaver; he was also, affected 
with Elephantiasis of the right leg, but was otherwise in good health. 
The tumour, or morbid growth of the scrotum, commenced 10 years 
ago, but has during the last four years increased very rapidly ;' it is 
now of enormous size, measuring from the Perineum to the' Pubes 
45 inches — largest transverse diameter -39 inches — smallest diameter, 
that is round the neck, 18 inches ; the integuments of the abdomen are 
much dragged down, as is also the whole of the Perina?um to the anus ; 
the Penis is not to be seen, the urine being discharged through a chasm 
in the front of the tumour, the left Testicle or its Epididymis is felt 
almost of natural size, at the back of the mass, which appears to 
consist in great degree of indurated cellular tissue, similar to Ele- 



[21 J 

ohanliusis ; the skin is much corrugated over the whole anterior part, 
but posteriorly it is healthy; and the neck of the tumour consists 
wholly of healthy skin, the cord of the right side is somewhat en- 
larged, that of the left side is- of natural size. An operation has- been* 
talked of, but not yet decided on, though the man is quite willing" 
to submit to anything, that would relieve him from his oppressive 
burden ; for the present he has returned to his- family at C'hang-chow- 
£00 about 130 miles distant. In the case of enormous Hydrocele 12 
pounds of. serum were removed from the tunica vaginalis of the left 
side, there was a small scrotal hernia on the right side. In another 
ease of the same disease, but complicated with very large irreducible 
Lernia, which led to much, .difficulty in the Diagnosis, especially as 
the scrotum was much thickened in structure, 8 pounds of serous 
fluid was removed in the beginning of August, and in the beginning 
of September the same quantity was again drawn off. 

In September last a man applied at the Hospital with a tumour 
on the scalp, to which an escharotic application had been made ten 
days previously ; this- had the effect of destroying a large portion- 
of the tumour, and much of the surrounding skin, which were now. 
in process of separation ; in a few days a large portion of the tumour . 
was cut away, and shortly afterwards the remainder of it was re- 
moved, but with it came off the . pericranium of the parietal bone^ 
of about the size of a dollar, leaving the bone quite bare; the man 
was in good health, and though he had experienced much pain in 
the tumour during the process of separation, there had been no pain 
or uneasiness in the head ; in the middle of September this patient, 
was obliged to return home, the bone was at this time quite dry,- 
bttt the granulations all round the exposed part were healthy, and the 
man was in good health. At the beginning of November the patient 
returned, he was a sailor on board a bean Junk from Kwantung, 
(jMoukdin); his stock of ointment had lasted him almost all the time. 
The wound had been kept clean, the granulations were healthy, and 
exfoliation of the parietal bone had taken place ; a scale of bone was 
now removed, the granulated surface underneath, which, was red and 
well nourished ; cicatrization soon commenced and the wound was 
speedily healed. 

The case of severe wound of the knee, was that of a man who fell 
otjLboard his Junk, the left knee came in contact with a rice bowl, 
which was of course broken, and the broken portions inflicted an 
extensile wound on. the anterior part of the knee. He was brought 
to the Hospital. 5 days after the accident, when a wound was found 
to extend completely aoross the lower part of the knee joint, the 
ligamentum patella?, was divided,- and' the cavity of the joint, was laid 
open, especially on the outer side; there was also a wound of the leg, 
bv which the Fascia covering the Peroncei muscles was divided, and 
the muscles themselves much lacerated ; the man complained of severe 
pain in the knee ; he was immediately put to bed, the wound closed, 
simple dressing applied, and the whole covered by water dressing ; a 
dose of Calomel and opium was. given, which much relieved the severe 



[22] 

pain, he had previously suffered from. In a day or two the wound 
lost the red, inflamed, dry appearance it had at tirst ; became moist 
and covered with pus ; the case went on favorably, the suppuration 
became very profuse, and a large quantity of glairy fluid came from the 
joint ; occasionally severe pain with slight fever came on, and the 
patient required constant care ; in a few weeks cicatrization advanced 
rapidly, and in two months the external wound was almost healed, 
but the joint was stiff and at this period the limb was perfectly use- 
less. The man was obliged to return home in his Junk which was 
going to Shan-tung. He will most probably be able to use the limb 
in a few months ; but he will have a stiff joint, though that is a small 
matter, when the very serious nature of the injury is taken into con- 
sideration . 

The Captain of a Junk presented himself at the Hospital, having 
dislocation of both humeri into the Axillae ; this had occured from a 
violent fall on his back, on the deck of the Junk, during a severe 
gale of wind, which made the vessel pitch and roll very much, the 
Junk was coming clown the Yang-tsze-keang from Nanking; — the 
accident happened 70 days before he applied for relief, attempts were 
made to reduce the dislocations ; but the heads of the ossa humeri, 
were so firmly fixed in their new positions, and the attempts at reduc- 
tion gave the man so much pain, that they were not persevered in. 

Since the establishment of the Hospital at Shanghai, endeavours 
have been made to introduce vaccination among the people, and re- 
peated trials have been made, with lymph sent from the Hospital at 
Hongkong ; and also with further supplies sent through the kindness 
of Dr. Anderson of Macao, and Dr. Maxwell in charge of the 
Madras troops at Chusan ; this latter had been sent to China from 
Madras ; all however proved unsuccessful, till a fresh supply was re- 
ceived from Macao last April, the use of which has happily been suc- 
cessful. At this time the Colonel of the Chinese garrison of this citv, 
Haw-ta-jin requested that one of his daughters might be vaccinated, 
which was done, and finally another of his children and thirty of the 
soldiers and neighbours' children were vaccinated at his residence, in 
addition to which twenty children were vaccinated at the Hospital. 
It is hoped that in a few months, as the plan of vaccination becomes 
more known, its practice will be extensively sought after. Inocula- 
tion is much practised by the native physicians, indeed the greatest 
number of the children are inoculated ; the mode followed is to push a 
piece of cotton impregnated with variolous lymph up the nostrils, or to 
dress the child with clothes that have been worn by a person affect- 
ed with small pox, and in a few days the small pox developes itself. 
But the advantages of vaccination are so great over inoculation, that 
the former will eventually it is hoped find as much favour here as it 
has done in Canton, where it was introduced by the late Mr. Pearso>:, 
and an establishment has for many years been kept up at the expense 
of the Hong-merchants, for vaccinating all who apply. To make 
known more fully the benefit of vaccination, the pamphlet originally 
drawn up by Mr. P^akscn, and translated into Chinese by Sir G. 



[23] 

Staunton*, was republished with some corrections and slight addi- 
tions ; and a large number of copies distributed in various parts of the 
surrounding country. It has been said that at Nanking there is an 
establishment for the performance of vaccination, but hitherto no 
definite intelligence has been obtained regarding it. 

There is a short work published by a Chinese practitioner on the 
subject of inoculation, called " The preservation of Infants by Inocula- 
tion." By the writer it is supposed that small pox arises from poison 
introduced into the system from the mother's womb, and this is said 
to be proved by the occurrence of this disease but once during life ; 
this poison is in the Chinese system associated with the principle of 
heat, and remains concealed in the system till it is developed through 
the agency of some external exciting cause ; hence there being a con- 
stant liability to this disease breaking out, it is very desirable that 
some means of modifying its virulence should be adopted, and this 
means is found in inoculation at such times and seasons, as appear 
to be most advantageous, and when the system of the patient is in a 
healthy condition. The ancients possessed the knowledge of inoculat- 
ing for (or planting) the small pox, which was handed down from the 
time of Chin-tsnng of the Sung dynasty (1014 A. D.) and was in- 
vented by a Philosopher of Go-mei-shan in the province of Sze-chuen. 
The disease, when it breaks out spontaneously, is very severe and often 
fatal ; whereas when it is introduced by inoculation, it is generally 
mild, and casualties do not occur oftener than once in ten thousand 
cases; — the author concludes his introductory remarks by saying, 
" to discard this excellent plan and sit waiting for the calamity, is 
much to be deprecated ; it ought to be pressed on the attention of all, 
as a most beneficial thing for their adoption, and all persons that 
have children ought to confide in it, so that the lives of their children 
may be preserved." Then follow ten rules, which are to be attended 
to; — 1st, regarding variolous lymph; this is the fluid that comes 
from the small pox pustules, and must be taken from a child which 
has the mild form of the disease ; whether arising spontaneously or 
from inoculation, the pustules ought to be round or pointed, and of a 
clear red colour, the fluid abundant and the crust which comes away 
clear and consistent like wax. The lymph itself or the crust rubbed 
down with a little water can be introduced into the sore, as above 
mentioned. Another mode of inoculation is drying the crusts, re- 
ducing them to powder and then blowing this powder up the nose ; 
this is called dry inoculation. After seven days fever appears, three 
days afterwards the spots show themselves ; three days after this the 
spots become pustular, in three days more the crusts form, when the 
whole is completed. If the inoculation does not take effect, it may 
be repeated in 14 days. 

2nd; Seasons. — The spring and autumn are the most favorable 
seasons for inoculation, or any time when the weather is moderate ; 
during the very hot or very cold months, it ought not to be done. 

3/-rf; Choice of lucky days. — A lucky day ought always to the 
chosen ; the 11th and loth days of the moon must always be avoided. 



: 24 j 

4th ; Management of the patients.— During the process of inocula- 
tion, it is of great importance that strict rules of management be 
■ adopted in respect to heat and cold ; with attention to diet and the 
avoidance of any cause of alarm or fright. 

5th ; At the time for Inoculation, The child must be examined, 
and the state of its health ascertained; strict attention must also be 
paid to the state of the family, and if the child be sick the operation 
must not be performed. All children ought to be inoculated when 
they are one year old ; if the health be good this ought by no means 
to be neglected. 

6/// ; Restricting. — The room of the inoculated child ought to be 
clean and airy and well lighted ; all excitement must be avoided, and 
the child kept quiet and placid. 

7th; Promise of the Eruption. — After the inoculation and before 
the fever appears, there suddenly arise on the child's face several 
pustules like small pox ; these are called the "sin meaou " promise, 
or belief eruption ; it is the forerunner of the disease, and the evidence 
of the poison having taken effect. 

8th ; Repetition of the Inoculation. — If after waiting fourteen days, 
the fever does not appear, should the season still be favourable the 
inoculation may be repeated. 

9th ; Mode of Action. — The inoculation must affect the viscera and 
then fever commences. The nose is the external orifice of the lungs ; 
v hen the variolous lymph is placed in the nose, its influence is first 
communicated to the lungs ; the lungs govern the hair and skin ; the 
lungs transfer the poison to the heart; the heart governs the puke 
i.nd transfers the poison to the spleen ; the spleen governs the flesh and 
transfers the poison to the liver ; the liver governs the tendons and 
transfers the poison to the kidneys ; the kidneys govern the bones, the 
poison of the small pox lies hid originally in the marrow of the bones ; 
but when it receives the impression from the inoculation, it manifests 
kself and breaks out externally. 

10th ; General Rules. — Inoculation is to be performed when there 
is no disease present in the system ; good lymph must be selected, a 
proper time chosen, and good management adopted and then all will 
go on well. 

The retired scholar Lew-Ian, respectfully assenting to the Impel ial 
decree, compiled the above very important regulations regarding in- 
oculation, and placed them in the " Golden mirror of the Medical 
practice;" in later times celebrated physicians have discoursed upon 
them, and revised them with much care and attention. 

Thus far an imperfect account has been given of the operations of 
the Medical Missionary Society at Shanghai, it ought also to be 
added that while attention is paid to the bodily wants of the people, 
endeavours are made to combine teaching with healing, and for this 
purpose the Rev. W. H. Mkdhuhst, has kindly attended three times 
a week, and addressed the patients on the leading doctrines of Chris- 
tianity, and it is very pleasing to see the marked attention with which 
they listen to the exhortations made to them. 



[25] 

In addition of the pecuniary contributions so liberally made to the 
Hospital at tliis place, the following have also been received : — 

A case of Cataract needles value £2.2. from the Ladies association 
in behalf of Medical Missions in China — Western Branch, — through 
Mrs. Charles, London. 

Ten Blankets, — Captain Bomfield, Chusan. 

Ten Blankets, — Lieutenant Elliott, Chusan. 

Ten Blankets, — Dr. Maxwell, M. N. I., Chusan. 

The Tung-jin-tang J^j t~~_ iW* Hall of united benevolence, was 

mentioned in the report of last year ; in addition to the objects of 
the Institution there mentioned, a Dispensary was opened in the 5th 



month of last year, and continued till the 8th month, called TJn^TBi 
^>\ ]S*I She-e-kung-keuh, or establishment for gratuitous Medical 

relief; this was attended by 8 or 9 native practitioners, who saw the 
patient once every five days ; this attendance was gratuitous on the 
part of some of them, and was paid for in the case of others ; the 
Medicines were supplied by the different Apothecaries' shops in the 
city, one shop dispensing all that is wanted during one day, which is 
paid for by the subscribers to this part of the above institution ; the 
attendance of patients varies from 300 to 500, who are of all classes ; 
they aie prescribed for in the large halls of the establishm3nt, which 
Rre well adapted for this purpose. It is said that every Foo district 
city has a Dispensary of this kind, but it is not known to what extent 
these operations are carried on, most probably not to the same extent 
as at this place ; the reason given for the recent establishment of a 
means for affording this relief to the sick at Shanghai, which is only 
a Heen or departmental city, is that it has been done by a foreigner 
who came to reside at the place, and therefore some of the wealthy 
people wished to show their benevolent feeling in the same way ; 
this Dispensary can only be kept open for three months, as the Me- 
dical attendants are not willing to bestow a larger time upon it ; it 
was again opened in the 5th March of this year, and is now in full 
operation. It is pleasing to observe that the influence of the Medical 
Missionary Society's Hospital is thus felt ; and it would be very- 
desirable if the object of the above named establishment could be 
carried out more extensively, and continued for the whole year, as it 
is a most praiseworthy undertaking, and while in operation, was con- 
ducted with much spirit and energy, and were the Medical men better 
informed in the principles of the healing art, a very large amount of 
benefit would be conferred on the patients. The attendance at the 
Hospital is not at all diminished, since the establishment of the Chi- 
nese Dispensary, neither will it be, for the class of cases is different 
in great degree, and the patients at the Hospital come chiefly from a 
distance. 



Intermittent fever, 


71 


Tussis, .... 


. 725 


Asthma, . . 


91 


Haemoptysis, . 
Phthisis, 


100 
2S 


Chronic Laryngitis, 
Cynanche, . 
Ulceration of throat, 


. 30 

40 

. 20 


Dyspepsia, . 

Dysentery, 
Anasarca, . 


. 1434 

100 
18 


Ascites, .... 


. 17 


Jaundice, . 


18 


Enlargement of spleen, . 
Rheumatism, 


6 

. 1275 



[26] 

List of patients from May 1st 1844, to June 30th 1S45. 

laceration of flexor muscles 

from falling on a hoe, . 1 
Wound laying open the whole 
anterior part of knee joint 

from falling on a rice bowl, 1 

Swallowing needles by a juggler, 1 
Gangrene of hand, and gangre- 
nous spots on body from 
eating a poisonous vegetable, 1 

Ganglion of wrist, . . 1 
Inflamed mamma, . . .6 

Harelip, .... 1 

Abscess, .... SO 

Enormous abscess of thigh, ] 

Abscess under pectoral muscle, 1 
Ulcers, .... 350 

Carbuncle, .... 6 

Slough in leg of an old man, . 1 

Fistula in ano, . . . 12 

Do. very extensive . . 4 

Do. in perinaeo, . 1 

Do. Steno's duct, . . 1 

Excrescences round anus, . . 8 

Prolapsus ani, ... 5 

Haemorrhoids, . . 4 

Hernia scrotal, ... 88 

Do. Do. double, . 2 

Do. Do. congenital, . 4 
Do. inguinal, . . . .4 

Hydrocele, .... 35 

Do. enormous, ... 1 

Do. double with double hernia, 1 

Fracture of clavicle, . . 1 

Do. Radius, .... 1 

Do. Fibula, ... l 

Do. Tibia and fibula, . . 1 

Do. Neck of femur, , . 1 
Dislocation of both humeri from 

a fall, . . . . 1 

Posterior curvature of spine, . 1 

Distortion of knee, . . .1 

Disease of hip joint, . . 2 

Do. Knee joint, . . 4 

Do. Shoulder joint, . . 1 

Do. Elbow joint, . . . l 

Anchylosis of elbow joint, . 1 

Hydrops Articuli knee, . . 1 

Strumous englargment of Radius, 1 

Periosteal enlargment of Humerus, 1 

Extensive necrosis of humerus 

with removal of bone and 

solution of continuity, . 1 

Caries of head of fibula, 1 



Rheumatic enlargement of joints, 6 
Partial paralysis, . . .12 
Hemiplegia, ... 6 

Paraplegia, .... 1 
Epilepsy, .... 6 

Surditas, .... 76 

Deaf mute, ... 2 

Warts in Meatus Auditorius, 4 

Psora, .... 490 

Porrigo Decalvens, . . 20 

Lepra, 40 

Extensive eczema, . . 1 

Leprosy, . . . .40 

Elephantiasis, ... 24 

Elephantiasis enormous, . 1 

Elephantiasis with vast enlarge- 
ment of scrotum . . 1 
Malignant ulceration of scrotum, 1 
Malignant ulceration of nose, 1 
Lupus Faciei, ... 2 
Scalds and burns, . . .0 
Contusions, ... 20 
Frightful contraction of face 

from burn, . . .1 

Severe inflammation of absorb- 
ents of arm, . . . 1 
Suicide by opium eating, . . 1 
Attempted do. by opium eating, 4 
Opium smoking, . . .28 
Accidental amputation of finger, 1 
Gun shot wounds of face and body, 4 
Laceration of hand and removal 
of thumb by bursting of a 
gun, 1 
Severe wounds of face, . . 1 
Wounds of body by fighting 

with pirates, . . , 1 
Severe u-ound of thigh with 



[27] 



Claries of head of humerus, . 1 
Do. inferior maxilla, . . 3 

Soft nodes on ulna, tibia and 

frontal bone, ... 4 

t)steo-sarcoma of inferior maxilla, 1 

Do. superior maxilla, . . 2 

Do. humerus, ... 1 

Do. head of fibula, . . .1 

Destruction of palatal bones, I 

Secondary syphilis and soft nodes, 4 

Glandular swellings of neck, 14 

Tumour of face, . . .4 

Do. neck, .... 5 

Do. lip, 1 

Do. head, .... 1 
Large tumour of the Socia parotidis, I 
Enormous scrotal tumour,. . 1 
Sarcoma testis, . . .1 

Polypus nasi, ... 8 

Do. enormous size, . . , 1 
Large excrescences on dorsum 

linguae, .... 1 
Schirrus mammae, . . .1 
Aneurismal noevus of lip, . 1 
Extensive varicosity of veins of 
thorax and abdomen after 
ascitis, . . . . 1 
Painful induration of surface 

of thorax, . . .1 

Catarrhal ophthalmia, . . 360 
Pustular ophthalmia, . . 60 

Chronic Conjunctivitis, . . 464 
Granular lids, . . . 5S6l 
Do. Do. with opacity^. 623! 
Do. Do. pannus, ■ 250 

Leucoma, .... 360 
Ulceration of cornea, . 892 

Conical cornea, . . .15 
Staphyloma, ... 44 

Iritis, . . . 10 

Hernia iridis, ... 6 

Hypopium, .... 4 
Synechia, . . .11 

Irregularity of pupil, . 24 



Closure of pupil, . .80 

Amaurosis, . . no 

Do. from onanism, . . 12 
Cataract both eyes, . . .66 

Do. one eye , . . . 40 

Do. incipient, . . 79 

Lippitude, .... 176 
Pterygium, . . . 388 

Trichiasis, . . . .143 
Entropium, . . . .163 
Ectropium, ... 81 

Contraction of tarsi, . 206 

Epiphora, .... 6 

Excessive granulations on the 

conjunctiva, ... 1 
Enlargement of caruncula 

lachrymalis, . . 3 

Warts on do., ... I 
Destruction of eye lids, 1 

Malignant ulceration of do., . 4 
Abscess of eye lid, . , 6 

Chemosis, .... 4 
Abscess of lachrymal sac, . 1 

Fistula of do., ... 2 

Stab in the orbit of the eye, . 1 

Destruction of globe of the eye 

from carcinoma, . 1 

Loss of both eyes, . . 113 

Do. of one eye, . . .102 



Total number of patients, 10,978 



Operations. 
Cataract, 
Entropium, 
Pterygium, 
Artificial pupil, 
Staphyloma, 
Tumour of face, 
Do. of neck, 
Polypus nasi, 
Hydrocele, . 
Aneurismal noevus of lip tied, 



18 
33' 

2. 
IB 

2 

4 

1 

1 
26 

1 



Shanghai, July 1st, 1S45. 



REPORT 

OF THE 

MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY'S, 

HOSPITAL AT HONGKONG. 

By B. HOBSON, M. D. 

In a Letter to the Committee and Friends of the 

Medical Missionary Society in China. 

Gentlemen, — It is incumbent on me to give you some account of the 
operations of this Chinese Hospital, which has been established, and to 
the present time so generously supported, by its numerous friends and 
patrons both in this Colony and other places. At a general Meeting it 
would not be in good taste to enter into Medical detail, I shall therefore 
confine myself to statements of such a character as will inform you 
what has been accomplished since my last Report ending June, 1£44, 
with an account current of the Hospital expenditure and receipts since 
that period, reserving any observations on the diseases and treatment 
of the patients to a more suitable occasion. 

It was mentioned in my last notice of the Hospital premises, that 
the}' did not afford sufficient accommodation to the applicants fcr 
relief. I am now rejoiced to state, that the suggestion to use the 
money still in hand for building purposes, in rendering the establish- 
ment as complete and efficient in all respects as the means will allow, 
has been carried into effect. A verandah of 246 feet long to the 
north side, and 57 to the east side, and 6 additional rooms, have been 
built, with other improvements which add considerably to the beauty 
of the building, and supply what was necessary for accommodating 
the sick. 

The dispensary and lecture room are in every respect what could be 
desired, and the wards 10 in number, with cookery and washrooms; 
suit the wants and character of the patients that occupy them. The 
entire cost of the whole, by good management and careful superin- 
tendance, including the cutting of the ground, has not exceeded the 
sum for which the property in Macao was disposed of, viz : c£fo,C00. 

The house occupied by the Christian Teacher and Superintendent 
A-gong was built at the expense of the London Missionary Soeietv, 
as an acknowledgment for the few months the Rev. Dr. Lfgck and 
his family resided on the premises, at his arrival from the Straits. 



-[29-3 

1 air. happy 'to -state that there has been no intermission his a siBglj 
day to the regular ministration of the sick. These duties have com- 
menced punctually at 9 o'clock, and usually required four hours to 
complete the entire inspection. The number of new patients register- 
ed since last June to June 30th of this year amount to 3,307, making 
a sum total for the two years this Hospital has been opened in Hontr^ 
kong d'f 7,221 .patients. Of this number abdfct fifty each month, or 
upwards of 1,200, have been admitted as in-patients, so that -the pro- 
portion of this class forms one-sixth of all the applicants for relief, which 
when the following oircumstances are taken into consideration presents 
a fact of much interest. For here is an Hospital on a large scale, in a 
locality far removed at present from the Chinese settlements, situated 
on a high hill, 'conducted by a foreigner, ■known as a Religious Institu- 
tion, and offering only to the <most destitute any .pecuniary support, 
and therefore .possessing ne attractions to the Chinese beyond that of 
gratuitous Surgical and Medical aid, and yet tW Hospital is filled with 
patients, men, women, and children of varied di$>e-ases, age, and -dialect, 
who come with the greatest confidence from a 'circ*it >of at least 50 
wiles, bringing with them their bedding, cookery utensils, rice and 
fuel, to be simply healed of their maladies. Several times small Junks 
have anchored at the base of the hill, coming from the northeast part 
of this province from 5 to 7 days sail, with a number of patients on 
board. The sawie mark of confidence is daily exhibited in the Institu- 
tion, by persons from the districts of Heang-shan, Poomyft, Shun-tak, 
Sun-oan, Hoi-fang, Cfoen-chow and other places. I have mentioned 
the atbove, gentlemen, not for the purpose of display, bat to afford you 
some proof that this charity is appreciated, awd that your liberality is 
rewarded by evident tokens of good. 

Tn Hongkong, owing to the great awio^nt of building going on, 
there have been, as might naturally be expected, many accidents occur- 
ring, which have been increased by the injuries sustained 'from stone- 
rutting and fire-arms-. Thus the register of diseases shows a large 
proportion of contusions, and contused wounds, fractures of the arm 
and leg both -simple and compound, «iwl lacerated, punctured and gun- 
shot wounds of all parts of the body. To such cases this Hospital has 
afforded most timely succour; and while alfew died from the mortal 
injuries received, the greater part have derived all the benefit which 
Surgical aid could bestow. 

'ITie diseases treated have been as usual of a mixed character. 
Neuralgic and Rheumatic affections of the joints have been frequent ; 
next t» those cutaneous diseases, of which Itch, Psoriasis, Lichen, 
Eczema, and Leprosy, were the chief varieties. Diseases of the in- 
ternal organs, particularly tire inflammatory, have been comparatively 
mre. Of thes« the most common were Bronchitis, Chronic cough, 
Dyspepsia, and Diarrhoea. Dysentery both acute and chronic, which 
proves so fatal to Europeans in the East, is among the Chinese, 
judging from my experience for the last five years, an unfrequent 
disease. May not this be accounted for by their temperate habits and 



[30] 

unstimulating food, united to a temperament congenial to the climate, 
and their habits of life ? 

Whereas the European partakes more of the phlogistic character, 
and when, unduly stimulated by too full a diet and alcoholic drinks, 
especially from the use of Sarn-shu, it is not surprising, when there is 
also often greet carelessness in not avoiding exposure to the sun, that 
there should be such destruction of life from this form of disease, 
among that class of persons usually affected by it. The disease most 
fatal to the Chinese, excluding occasional Epidemics of Small-pox, is 
in this part of China, continued fever. From what I have been en- 
abled to observe of its effects in Hongkong, it principally attacks those 
lately arrived in the Colony. This year there have been a large num- 
ber of the Chen-chow people (often called Chin-chew) who have come 
hither for employment on the roads and public works, and these have 
suffered more than any other class of Chinese this season. In May 
and June there was much sickness from this cause, and in the Hospital 
10 deaths occurred out of 26 that were admitted. But it is right to 
state; that some of these were in a hopeless condition when they were 
brought in. The symptoms much resembled those affecting the Euro- 
pean constitution. 

But the diseases affecting the organ of vision greatly preponderate 
over every other malady incident to the Chinese. And the statistics 
of all the Hospitals now open at the northern ports go to prove that 
it is not peculiar to the south, but prevails in all parts of China. The 
cause of this undue susceptibility to the Opthalmic, and their sequela?, 
is not to my mind very satisfactorily explained. No doubt much may 
be accounted for, by the practice of scooping and cleaning by the barbers, 
the want of skill in the native practitioner, and each year adding to 
the uncured chronic forms of the disease. 

Persons with vision almost extinct from long unsubdued irritation 
of 10 to 30 years often apply for relief, and even with considerable 
improvement to vision. But unfortunately many apply past all recov- 
ery, and the many cases appearing with entire loss of vision, both in 
children and adults, are quite distressing, and the more so when a few 
hours earlier application might' have saved the eye from destruction. 

Probably a finer school for the study of Opthalmic diseases than the 
hospitals supply in China cannot be found ; hence their, value to the 
native assistants training up under* the auspices of the Society. And 
speaking of assistants I am glad to have the opportunity of statino- 
that Apoon, who last year underwent a rigid examination in the pres- 
ence of Dr. Anderson and other Medical Gentlemen, continues to give 
me great satisfaction. 

He is quite competent to take the entire charge of an Opthalmic 
Hospital, and I hope before long to see him established in practise for 
himself, and conducting a Hospital on a similar plan to this in one of 
the populous cities of the neighbourhood. I am very anxious to see 
a Medical School established in the immediate vicinity of this hospital 
in Hongkong. And from the facilities which this Colony presents of 
conducting such a desirable and useful Institution as this would be to 



[31] 

China, I trust no efforts will be spared to carry this project inte effect. 

With respect to the conduct of the patients I have nothing to com- 
plain of, heyond a frequent want of ready intelligibility of their various 
dialects, and their disregard to cleanly habits; neither of which -ire 
peculiar to these parts, but more apparent from the scattered and poor 
condition of the people. There is no quarrelling, and no vice to my 
knowledge practised in the hospital. 

The doors are open night and day, and yet it is a rare exception for 
a patient to leave the hospital without first asking permission and re- 
turning thanks. This is a mark of confidence and good behaviour 
which, will be appreciated, when I mention that there is no compulsion 
exerted, or door keeper to watch their movements. 

They are made to feel at home, treated with kindness, and as much 
dene for ":heir benefit as their cases will admit of. And being inof- 
fensive, quiet, and of temperate habits, there is little management re- 
quired. Their diet is simple, and their constitution good, and united 
to a ready susceptibility to medicinal agents, with no prejudice from 
caste, a better class of patients probably does not exist. 

According to the objects for which I have been sent hither by the 
London Missionary Society, I have endeavoured to make the hospital 
an efficient auxiliary in spreading a knowledge of Christianity among 
its inmates. This is not forced upon them, for it is a voluntary act for 
them to attend the religious services that are held in the Lecture room 
every day, in the morning in the Canton dialect and the Chen-chow 
in the evening. The average attendance at the former is 40, and at the 
la er 20. These services consist of singing a short psalm, and read- 
ing and expounding the Sacred Scriptures, with prayer ; and visitors 
have often expressed their surprise at the good order and marked at- 
tention of the hearers. 

The Canton service is conducted by Agong, who was baptized by 
Dr. Morrison in 1830, and has been in connection with the London 
Missionary Society for many years. I am happy to bear a good tes- 
timony to the excellence of his character, and the ability and interest 
he displays in performing his duties. 

The other was formerly a tea merchant, a native of Chen-chow, and 
acts as Interpreter to this class of patients ; he renders much valuable 
aid in the Dispensary, and from his active and zealous habits he has 
proved of valuable aid to the Institution. In concluding this part of 
my report I may add, that if the patients have not given satisfactory 
evidence that they feel or are influenced by the moral truths inculcat- 
ed, the fault has not arisen from want of opportunity to learn them, or 
persuasion to practise what they hear; the fault lies rather in their own 
innate apathy, and indifference to Religion generally. Much know- 
ledge however has been diffused, and it may bring forth fruit after many 
days. 

I now come to speak of the expenditure, and I am happy in being 
able to show a balance sheet in favor of the Society, without making 
any application to the funds in the Treasury, the subscriptions and 
donations sent in for the use of the Hospital having exceeded the ex- 



[32] 

peases incurred. The account current gives all the receipts and ex- 
penditure from the 1st of June 1844 to July 1st 1845. 

It will be seen from this, that about 50 dollars per month have cov- 
ered all the incidental expenses of the Hospital, with servants wages, 
allowance to assistants, &c. ; or in the aggregate 600 dollars per year; 
which must be acknowledged a small sum for so large an establish- 
ment. I have invariably studied to exercise a strict economy, and I 
take no credit to myself in stating that I have succeeded. This sum 
does not include a yearly supply of medicine, which may be estimated 
at about 4^100, which has hitherto been very liberally and kindly pro- 
vided, both for Dr. LocKHARTand myself, by the auxiliary Medical Asso- 
ciation in London, composed and managed by kind hearted benevolent 
Ladies, who have displayed a peculiarly deep interest in all that relates 
to the welfare of the Chinese. f 

I would here beg to suggest to the Committee and Friends of the 
Society, that if the funds should permit, the benefits of this excellent 
Charity would be still farther enhanced, by a fixed allowance of rice, 
fuel, or cash to a larger number of the In-patients than has hitherto been 
given. The greater proportion belong to the working classes, and are 
therefore poor, and it would be money well spent to afford them some 
means of support while residing in the hospital. The usual allowance 
of 30 cash a day to 10 or 14 of the most needy, is less than a penny 
per day to each, and though gratefully received it cannot support alone 
the poorest Chinese. 

Before concluding, it is my duty to state that the thanks of the So- 
ciety are due to several Medical Gentlemen in Victoria, for the valuable 
assistance they have occasionally offered at operations, and the interest 
manifested in its general proceedings ; and it affords me much pleasure 
in taking this opportunity of thankfully acknowledging their kind at- 
tentions. Several acceptable Medical works have been presented dur- 
ing the past year by Dr. Parratt of the Royal Artillery, Dr. Eatwei l, 
a Friend through the London Missionary Society, and the Hackney 
Association, for the special use of this Hospital j the names and titles 
of which I have entered in the List of the books in the library. 

I- have to acknowledge also some valuable Instruments presented to 
myself for the use of the Hospital by Dr. Crommelin, Hon. E. I. 
Comp, Surgeon. 

My obligations are due also to Alfred Tucker, Esq., Surgeon of 
the Minden's Hospital, and to Dr. Dill for the loan of fracture ap- 
paratus, and their advice in important cases. I must not forget also 
to record the liberality of ladies in Northampton, who sent me a box of 
useful articles, the proceeds of which ^90, I have placed to the Hos- 
pital account, and used for its general support. The kind interest and 
patronage of the Hon. General D'Aguilar has been manifested, not 
only by his annual subscription, but by a special donation to purchase 
blankets and clothing for the use of the poor and destitute in winter ! 
Since the above was written I have been unexpectedly called to 
return for a season to my native land, in consequence of the failure 
of Mrs. Hobson-'s health from a long residence in a tropical climate. 



[33] 

which for some time past has been injuring her constitution. I 
have written an official letter to Dr. Anderson the acting Secretary 
to this Society, who will doubtless lay it before the Meeting, as it 
details the arrangements I have been enabled to make through the 
generous kindness of friends to carry on the Hospital during my tem- 
porary absence. I propose D. V. to return by the August overland 
Mail, and during my short residence in England, I will endeavour to 
bring out additional help, and if practicable excite some interest to aid 
us in establishing in this growing and important Colony a Medical 
School, similar to that which adds such a lustre to the city of Palaces 
in India. 

This is not a suitable time or place to enter farther upon the advan- 
tages which must accrue to the Chinese nation, by so valuable an In- 
stitution as this would prove to be; I need only remark, that the Me- 
dical gentlemen of the Medico-Chirurgical Society at Hongkong have 
taken a lively interest in the proposition, and have promised their aid 
in every way that lies in their power to carry it into effect. Before 
concluding I must draw the attention of the Meeting to the great 
obligations this local Society is under to our highly esteemed Secretary 
and Vice-President Dr. Anderson. He has been one of the warmest 
friends the Medical Missionary Society has ever possessed, and now 
that he is finally leaving China to return home, I earnestly hope that 
some palpable expression of its acknowledgments and thanks for his 
valuable and most disinterested services be conveyed to him. 

I feel considerable regret on this account, and for other reasons, to 
be absent at the general Meeting in September, at which, however, I 
earnestly hope that such wise and proper arrangements will be made, 
as will put an effectual stop to all future disputes and dissatisfaction 
in the general management of the Medical Missionary Society in 
China ; in which there ought to be, and I trust, will be only peace, 
unanimity and cordial co-operation ; and to effect this I desire to re- 
cord my sincere and unbiassed opinion, in favor of an amicable separa- 
tion from the party from whence these difficulties arose, and with 
whom I fear there is but little hope of maintaining a union complete and 
unbroken in the very different circumstances in which the Medical Mis- 
sionary Society is now placed, compared with the period of its organiza- 
tion at Canton in 1838. And a union in name only, without reality, 
I need only say would be worse than useless, it would be injurious. 

I remain, Gentlemen, truly yours, 

BENJ. HOBSON. 
Hongkong, July 1st. 1845. 



REPORT 



NINGPO MISSIONARY HOSPITAL, 

TO THE 

MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY OF CHINA. 

By D. J. MacGOWAN, M. D.* 

The Ningpo Missionary Hospital was opened in November, 1843. but 
continued in operation for three months only. It was not re-opened 
until April last. During these eight months, but a small portion of 
the alternate davs of the week were devoted to the treatment of the 
sick, in consequence of the more urgent claims which the study of the 
language has had on the Physician's time ; hence, the comparatively 
small number received. Until recently the benevolence of the Medical 
Missionary Society in this city, was carried on in a Dispensary, occupy- 
ing at one time a private dwelling, and subsequently the principal temple 
of the Taou sect, which rendered it difficult to perform Surgical opera- 
tions, and unadvisable to undertake the treatment of dangerous forms 
of disease. At present, however, there is a suitable Hospital, capable 
of accommodating eighteen or twenty patients. The applicants for 
aid are so numerous, that were all the Medical officers of the Society 
at this one port, a great multitude of sufferers, many of whom come 
from remote cities, would be left to their fate, for want of time to 
prescribe for them. The recipients of the Society's bounty in Ningpo, 
have been mainly the poor, who generally speaking are the only proper 
subjects of its charity. It is hoped that at no distant day, those 
among the Chinese who have the ability will contribute towards the 
support of the Institution, as a return for the benefits which western 
Medical science confers on them. As the. patrons of the Medical Mis- 
sionary Society, and the readers of its Reports, do not generally feel 
interested in the details of Medical science, the names of the various 
diseases treated (though regularly recorded according to the Society's 
rules,) may be omitted without apology. 

The city of Ningpo is at the confluence of two rivers, nearly in the 
centre of a large alluvial plain, varying from about 10 to 15 miles in 
breadth, and '20 to 25 in length, enclosed on all sides by lofty hills. 
The plain is intersected in every direction by canals, which serve for 

* Dr. MacGowan's Report v*as not received till after the General Meeting. 



[35] 

draining, irrigation, and transportation. The population of the city 
ma}- be estimated at 2.50,000, and that of the plain at as much more. 
The filthy habits of the people, together with the imperfect interment 
of their dead, both in town and country, do not seem to be pro- 
ductive of much di e se. The climate, both as it affects natives and 
foreigners, is salubrious, and generally agreeable. The extremes of 
temperature, remarked on the Eastern continent of North America, 
prevail on this coast, but to a far greater degree : as much more as 
the Pacific exceeds the Atlantic in breadth. At Ningpo the winters 
mav be compared to those of Paris, and the summers for a short sea- 
son to those of Calcutta. 

The diseases which chiefly prevail here are a mild form of intermit- 
tent Fever, Diarrhnea, Rheumatism, Ophthalmia, and various cutaneous 
affections. Foreigners are subject to the three first named affections 
at certain seasons ; yet t'ae port can be recommended to invalids at ths 
south with confidence, as affording perhaps the best sanatorium on 
this side of the Cape. Ningpo enjc\ u the exemption from pulmonary 
affections which is co-nmon to marshy districts generally : not a single 
case of consumpti n has yet come under my notice. 'J he number 
atliicted with blindness is very great : this is occasioned in a great 
measure from the violence of the disease which often follows in- 
oculation. The blessing which the genius of Jknner conf rred on 
mankind, has not yet extended to the north of China. Efforts will 
be made this season to introduce vaccination. Another cause of blind- 
ness is the disease called entrop'tum, or an inversion of the lids, keep- 
ing up a constant friction of the eyelashes against the visual organ. 
A very simple oneration removes this disease. Chinese surgeons 
have a method of operating, which often leaves the patient worse than 
before. Prudei tia' considerations have induced me to decline per- 
forming for the p.esent any (what in a Surgical point of view can be 
called) import nt operations. Ten applications were made in behalf 
of persons wl o had attempted suicide ; in only two of the cases were 
the remedies sue essful in averting death. Four of these cases were 
females, and ix males; one resorted to drowning, the rest to opium. 
The motive in almost every case appeared to be anger, or revenge. 
Perhaps in the large cities of no country, except Japan, are suicides 
more frequei t tian in China. Opium smoking has many victims ; tl.e 
poor subjects < f this destructive vice often apply either in person, or 
through relatives, for some remedy to enable them to overcome the 
fatal habit. Happily the tradesmen who form the great body of the 
people have neither the means, nor the time for this indulgence. The 
use of the crug is chiefly confined to the retainers of Magistrates, to 
boat-men, shop-men, and others who have some leisure ; the literary- 
men, and officers are addicted to it perhaps more than other classes. 
Infanticide is extremely rare in this city ; not so an analogous crime. 
At Fung-hwa, ore of the cities of this fu, occupied chiefly by por r 
people engaged in the manufacture of mats, female children are put to 
death in great numbers, if the concurrent testimony of the natives can 
be relied on. 



[36] 

The primary object of this Hospital has been to disseminate among 
the people a purer faith, which if received, will prove a certain, as 
it is the only remedy for their moral, and to no small extent for their 
physical maladies : to this end each patient is exhorted to renounce 
all idolatry and wickedness, and to embrace the religion of the world's 
Saviour. They are admitted by tens into the prescribing room, and 
before being dismissed are addressed by the physician, and the native 
Christian assistant, on the subject of religion. Tracts are given to all 
who are able to read. It may be here remarked that the proportion 
of those able to read in China, to the whole population, is very small, 
probably not more than 5 per cent, of the adult males. The ability 
to read among females is extremely rare. The foreign residents in 
this city being so few in number, nearly all the benefits which the 
Medical science and humanity of the west can confer on the people 
must come from the philanthropic of other places. By such it is hoped 
the claims of the Society supporting the Ningpo Hospital will not be 
unheeded. The benevolence of the foreign community of Bengal 
has supplied the means of furnishing the Hospital with instruments, 
anatomical models, plates and books, which have been ordered in Paris 
though not yet arrived at their destination. Though the pages of a 
Medical Journal are the most appropriate place for a detailed account 
of the diseases treated at this Hospital, yet the subjoined statement 
may not be uninteresting. 2,137 patients have been prescribed for : — 

Of these 1,737 were Men. 
„ 240 were Women. 

„ 160 were Children. 



Total 2,137 




Of their occupations, there were : ■ 
Agriculturists, ..... 

Mechanics, ...... 

Laborers, ........ 

Boatmen, ..... 

Pedlers, ...... 

Shopkeepers,, ..... 

Fishermen, ...... 

Literary men, , 

Beggars, ....... 

Priests, Players, and Jugglers, 

Barbers, Doctors, &c, .... 


714 
375 
164 
95 
72 
61 
50 
78 
56 
42 
30 




1,737 



Ningpo, September 1st, 1845. 



[37] 

List of Officers. 

PRESIDENT. 

T. R. COLLEDGE, Esq., F. R. S. E., England. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

ALEXANDER ANDERSON, Esq. 

G. T. LAY, Esq. 

Rev. E. C. BRIDGMAN, D. D. 

WILLIAM LESLIE, Esq. 

DONALD MATHESON, Esq. 

Hon. Major D'AGUILAR, C. B. 

Hon. J. W. HULME, Esq. 

Rev. V. STANTON, 

T. W. L. MACKEAN, Esq. 

H. R. HARKER, Esq. 

R. THOM, Esq. 

RECORDING SECRETARIES. 

P. YOUNG, Esq. 

F. DILL, Esq. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

Rev. Dr. LEGGE, 

TREASURER. 

P. DUDGEON, Esq. 

AUDITOR OF ACCOUNTS. 

G. SMITH, Esq. 



REGULATIONS 

OF THE MEDICAL MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 

Passed in the form of Regulations at a General Meeting 

at Canton, February 21st, 1S38. 



OBJECT. 

I. That, in order to give a wider extension, and a permanency, to the efforts 
that have already been made to spread the benefits of rational medicine and 
surgery among the Chinese, a Society be organized at Canton, under the name 
of the Medical Missionary Society in China : That the object of this Society be, 
to encourage gentlemen of the medical profession to come and practice gratuit- 
ously among the Chinese, by affording the usual aid of hospitals, medicine, and 
attendants : But that the support or remuneration of such medical gentlemen be 
not at present within its contemplation. 

OFFICERS. 

II. That the officers of this Society consist of a President, Vice-presidents, a 
Recording Secretary, a Corresponding Secretary, a Treasurer, and an Auditor of 
Accounts, — to be elected by ballot, annually; That these officers collectively form 
a committee of management, for performing the business of the Society ; That 
in the absence of the President, the duties of his office be performed by the senior 
Vice-president, that is, by the Vice-president whose name shall stand first in order 
on the ballot list ; That eny vacancy occurring between the annual meetings be 
filled up by the committee: And that the Secretaries and Treasurer render every 
year a Report of the operations of the Society. 

MEMBERS. 

III. That persons subscribing fifteen dollars annually be considered members 
of the Society during the period of their subscription : That donors to the amount 
of one hundred dollars at one time be constituted members for life : And that 
donors of five hundred dollars at a time be constituted directors for life. 

MEETINGS. 

IV. That an annual meeting of the Society be held on the last Thursday of 
September in each year, for the election of officers and the transaction of sreneral 
business : That the President be empowered to call a special meeting of the 
Society, at the request of the committee of management, or on the application of 
five members : And that the committee regulate the times of its own meetings. 

LIBRARY. 

V. That this association shall have a Library, to be called 'the Library of the 
Medical Missionary Society in China,' and to be under the control of the com- 
mittee of management, by which donations of books, &e., may be accepted. 

ANATOMICAL MUSEUM. 

VI. That this Society form a museum of natural and morbid anatomy, paint- 
ings of extraordinary diseases, &c, to be called ' the Anatomical Museum of the 
Medical Missionary Society in China,' and to be under the control of the com- 
mittee of management. 



[39] 

TRUSTEES. 

VII. That all real estate or other property belonging to the Society be held 
on behalf of the same by a Board of Trustees, to consist of the President, the 
Treasurer, and the Auditor of Accounts. 

QUALIFICATION OF MEDICAL MEN EMPLOYED. 

VIII. That candidates for the patronage of the Society must furnish satis- 
factory certificates of their medical education, approved of by the Society send- 
ing them out, — with testimonials from some religious body as to their piety, 
prudence, and correct moral and religious character. 

DUTIES OF SUCH MEDICAL MEN. 

IX. That the Society will not assume the right to control any individual act- 
ing under its patronage, or to interfere with or modify the instructions he may 
have received from the Society sending him out : That it will, however, expect 
a strict observance of any general regulations, for the management of its in- 
stitutions, and a diligent study of some one dialect of the Chinese tongue on 
the part of those who receive its patronage ; And tint it will reserve to itself 
the right of withdrawing its patronage, at the discretion of the committee of 
management, from any individual who may, from non-compliance with its re- 
gulations, or from other causes, incur its displeasure. 

HOSPITAL REGISTER. 

X. That at each institution nnder the patronage of the Society, a book shall 
be kept, in which shall be inserted, in a fair and legible hand, an account of all 
important medical or surgical cases: And that, in order that this may not 
interfere with the other important duties of the physician or surgeon, any assist- 
ance necessary for keeping such a register shall be defrayed by the Society. 

FOREIGN AGENTS. 

XI. That the committee of management he empowered to appoint agents in 
Great Britain and America, to receive and transmit to them any sum that may 
be paid on behalf of this Society. 



BY-LAWS. 

1. The Committee shall meet on toe first Tuesday in January, April, July, and 
October, respectively, or oftener if necessary, for the transaction of business. 

2. The Recording Secretary, in concurrence with auy two other members of 
the Committee, may call special meetings. 

3. Voting by proxy will be allowed to persons necessarily absent from they 
place of meeting, provided the proxy produce a letter of authority for specific 
measures, written within one month of the time of meeting. 

4. Vive persons shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at a 
general meeting ; and three at a committee meeting. 

5. At the meetings of the Society and of the Committee, the President, or in 
his absence one of the Vice -presidents, following the order of priority on the list 
of officers, shall preside. 

C. The Recording Secretary shall keep full and ncmrate minutes of all the 
meetings, both of the Committee and of the Society — those of the former shall 
always be vouched by his own signature, and those of the latter shall be signed 
both by him and the presiding officer. 

7. The Corresponding Secretary shall conduct the foreign correspondence of 
the committee, except in cases that may be otherwise provided for ; and he shall 
keep a full record of all his correspondence, for the inspection of the Committee. 

8. Candidates for the Society's patnnage must present their credentials to 
the President, or senior Vice-president, who, with one of the Vice-presidents, 
following the order abovenamed, and the two Secretaries, shall examine, and, 
if they see tit, accept such person, — their proceedings, however, always beimr 
subject to the approval of the whole committee, and finally to that of the So^ 
r.iety itself if necessary. 

9. All books in the Medical Missionary Society shall be labeled, and a cata- 
logue of them kept by a librarian, under the direction of the Committee ; and 



[40] 

it shall be the duty of the librarian to take care of the books, and to make them 
accessible to all those who are in the service of the Society. 

10. All articles in the museum of the Medical Missionary Society, duly label- 
ed, shall be placed in charge of a person, appointed by the Committee for that 
purpose. 

11. The occupancy of the buildings, the use of instruments, &c, belonging to 
the Society, with all disbursements of money, shall be under the control of the 
Committee for the time being. 



Additional rules passed at a Meeting 
held March 27th, 1843. 

" That the first duty of those arriving in China is a diligent study of the Chi- 
nese language. 

" That while that is being pursued, individuals may obtain considerable benefit 
by assisting the medical officers in the hospitals and dispensaries already 
established. 

" That it will be expected that some portion of each day, or such days as the 
hospital or dispensary is open.be spent in giving such assistance and extending 
the usefulness of such institution, under the direction of the medical officer of 
the establishment. 

" That the attention of such as may hereafter arrive should l>e directed to the 
study of the dialects of the Chinese language spoken in districts not already oc- 
cupied by medical missionaries. 

" That until every port opened to foreigners has been occupied by laborers 
in this sphere of missionary exertion, the committee will not give its sanction 
to the disbursement of funds, unless under peculiar circumstances, for medical 
practice in places where hospitals or dispensaries are already open. 

" That until such time as individuals have attained sufficient proficiency in the 
language of such places to which their attention has been directed as a fit field 
of labor to justify the belief that they are able to undertake the management of 
an institution, and labor efficiently by themselves among the Chinese, no funds 
will be advanced for that purpose. 

" That every information will be given by the Committee on the subject of 
the dialects of the language to which the attention of individuals whose field of 
labor has not been already fixed upon should be directed. 

" That a sub-committee, consisting of Rev. E. C. Bridgman, d. d., J. R. Mor- 
rison, Esq., and the Rev. S. R. Brown, be appointed to direct the studies of 
those individuals who may arrive." 

(Signed) ALEX. ANDERSON, 

'Acting Secretary. 







i' 



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